This novel is one giant flashback with brief periods of the present, So the present foreshadows the past. In the present Joseph has killed a man cause he killed some one that meant a lot to him. This is a really obvious way of saying that Ellen was going to die. The way Ellen died was really surprising though! Another obvious foreshadowing was when Joseph found the money Ellen's father was giving his mother secretly. It was a sketchy situation, and you knew she was getting paid for something and you were pretty sure, but the author didn't come right out and say it until later. I think Joseph noticed the signs when he saw the money, but he was also really young so he wouldn't think about his mom having sexual relations for money.